Research Papers


UCSF researchers assessed 8,000 scientific papers on sugar and identified more than 4,000 that specifically focused on dietary sugar and health beyond the basic laboratory level. The following links connect to a continuously updated list of these papers, sorted by health topic, in the U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed), in the National Institutes of Health. For further information on how scientific sources were identified and selected, please see our research process.

To see sources, please click on the category:

• Dietary sugar and prediabetes/diabetes - 2,027 Sources

• Dietary sugar and the liver - 3,097 Sources

• Dietary sugar and triglycerides  - 1,336 Sources

• Dietary sugar and CVD/HTN  - 1,353 Sources

• Dietary sugar and metabolism - 520 Sources

• Dietary sugar and addiction - 977 Sources

• Dietary sugar and aging - 304 Sources

• Dietary sugar and neurodegeneration/dementia - 450 Sources

• Dietary sugar and cancers - 158 Sources

Diabetes mellitus

Usually shortened to just diabetes. Sometimes called sugar diabetes. Look at Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes for more information

SugarScience Glossary


The most common type of fat in our body and in our food. We can eat triglycerides, our bodies can make triglyceride, and our livers can turn excess sugar into triglycerides. If we do not burn triglycerides as fuel, they are stored as fat in the liver and elsewhere in the body.

SugarScience Glossary


A group of chronic diseases of the brain that cause, memory loss, behavior changes, and abnormal thinking and reasoning.

SugarScience Glossary


The largest internal organ. It weighs about three to four pounds and is located under the lower edge of the ribs on the right side. It helps us digest our food and remove toxins from our blood. "Hepat" in a word means liver, so an "hepato-toxin" is a liver poison or something that can cause damage to the liver

SugarScience Glossary

SugarScience Facts

Too much fructose in added sugar can damage your liver just like too much alcohol.

SugarScience Facts

Today, 31% of American adults and 13% of kids suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

SugarScience Facts

Growing scientific evidence shows that too much added sugar, over time, is linked to diabetes, heart disease and liver disease.

Healthy Beverage Initiative

Learn more about how organizations are
eliminating the sale of sugar sweetened beverages.

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Resource Kit

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